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Sugarcane and bowl of sugar

This is a list of sugars and sugar products. Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources.

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Generally speaking, chemical names ending in -ose indicate sugars. 'Syrup' indicates a sugary solution.

Malting is a way of processing starchy grains like wheat and barley into sugar, so 'malt extract' will be mostly sugar. Sugar is mostly extracted from plants by juicing them, then drying the purified juice, so 'evaporated cane juice crystals' or 'concentrated grape juice' are also very similar to pure sugars.

Sugars and sugar products[edit]

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Milk caramel manufactured as square candies, either for eating or for melting down
A block of Indian jaggery
  • Agave nectar – very high in fructose and sweeter than honey[1]
  • Arabinose[2]
  • Barbados sugar[1]
  • Barley malt syrup, barley malt[1] – around 65% maltose and 30% complex carbohydrate
  • Barley sugar – similar to hard caramel
  • Beet sugar[1] – made from sugar beets, contains a high concentration of sucrose
  • Birch syrup – around 42-54% fructose, 45% glucose, plus a small amount of sucrose
  • Brown sugar[1] – Consists of a minimum 88% sucrose and invert sugar. Commercial brown sugar contains from 4.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.5% molasses (dark brown sugar) based on total volume. Based on total weight, regular commercial brown sugar contains up to 10% molasses.
  • Buttered syrup[1]
  • Cane sugar (cane juice, cane juice crystals), contains a high concentration of sucrose.[1]
  • Caramel – made of a variety of sugars[1]
  • Carob syrup – made from carob pods[1]
  • Caster sugar[1]
  • Coconut sugar[1] – 70-79% sucrose and 3-9% glucose and fructose
  • Confectioner's sugar (also known as 'icing sugar')[1]
  • Corn sugar – dextrose produced from corn starch[1]
  • Corn syrup – sweet syrup produced from corn starch that may contain glucose, maltose and other sugars.[2]
  • Date sugar[1]
  • Dehydrated cane juice[1]
  • Demerara sugar[1]
  • Dextrin[1] – an incompletely hydrolyzed starch made from a variety of grains or other starchy foods.[3]
  • Dextrose[1] – a naturally occurring simple sugar similar to glucose
  • Disaccharide – also known as double sugar, it is made when two monosaccharides (aka simple sugars) are joined together. Examples include sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
  • Evaporated cane juice[1]
  • Free sugar – all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to food and naturally present sugars in honey, syrups, and fruit juices (sugars inside cells, as in raw fruit, are not included)
  • Fructose[1] – a simple ketonicmonosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose
  • Fruit juice, Fruit juice concentrate[1]
  • Fucose[2]
  • Galactose – a monosaccharide sugar not as sweet as glucose or fructose
  • Glucose, glucose solids[1]
  • Golden syrup, golden sugar[1] – refined sugar cane or sugar beet juice
  • Grape sugar,[1] grape juice
  • High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)[1] – made from corn starch, containing from 55% fructose[3] to 90% fructose.
  • High maltose corn syrup – mainly maltose, not as sweet as high fructose corn syrup
  • Honey[1] – consists of fructose and glucose
  • Inositol[2] – naturally occurring sugar alcohol. Commercial products are purified from corn.[4]
  • Inverted sugar syrup[1] – Pursuant to Code of Federal Regulation 21CFR184.1859, invert sugar is an 'aqueous solution of inverted or partly inverted, refined or partly refined sucrose, the solids of which contain not more than 0.3 percent by weight of ash. The solution is colorless, odorless, and flavorless, except for sweetness. It is produced by the hydrolysis or partial hydrolysis of sucrose with safe and suitable acids or enzymes.' [5]
  • Jaggery – made from date, cane juice, or palm sap, contains 50% sucrose, up to 20% invert sugars, and a maximum of 20% moisture
  • Lactose – sometimes called milk sugar[6]
  • Malt extract or malt syrup -– a sweet, sticky, brown liquid made from barley [7]
  • Maltose[1] – a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond, formed from a condensation reaction
  • Maltodextrin, maltol[1] – a white powder or concentrated liquid made from corn starch, potato starch, or rice starch. Although it is sugar polymer, it does not taste sweet.[8]
  • Mannose[2][1]
  • Maple sugar – around 90% sucrose
  • Maple syrup[1] – around 90% sucrose
  • Molasses (from sugar beets) – consists of 50% sugar by dry weight, mainly sucrose, but also contains substantial amounts of glucose and fructose
  • Monosaccharide – refers to 'simple sugars', these are the most basic units of carbohydrates. Examples are glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  • Muscovado[1] – a minimally processed sugar
  • Non-centrifugal cane sugar – made by the simple evaporation of sugar cane juice.
  • Palm sugar[1] – made from sap tapped from the inflorescence of assorted varieties of palm
  • Penuche[1]
  • Powdered sugar[1]
  • Raw sugar[1]
  • Refiner's sugar, refiner's syrup[1]
  • Ribose[2]
  • Rice syrup[1]
  • Rhamnose[2]
  • Saccharose[1]
  • Sorghum syrup[1]
  • Sucrose[1] – often called white sugar, granulated sugar, or table sugar, is a disaccharide chemical that naturally contains glucose and fructose. Commercial products are made from sugarcane juice or sugar beet juice.[9]
  • Sugarcane, which contains a high concentration of sucrose
  • Sweet sorghum[1]
  • Syrup[1]
  • Toffee – caramelized sugar or molasses
  • Treacle[1] – any uncrystallised syrup made during the refining of sugar
  • Trehalose – a natural alpha-linked disaccharide formed by an α,α-1,1-glucoside bond between two α-glucose units.
  • Yellow sugar[1]
  • Xylose[2]

See also[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabacadaeafagahaiajakalamanaoapaqar'Hidden in Plain Sight'. SugarScience.UCSF.edu. 2013-11-17. Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  2. ^ abcdefgCoelho, Rosalie R.R.; Linhares, Luiz Fernando; Martin, James P. (February 1988). 'Sugars in hydrolysates of fungal melanins and soil humic acids'. Plant and Soil. 106 (1): 127–133. doi:10.1007/BF02371204.
  3. ^'High–fructose Corn Syrup Medical Definition - Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary'. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
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External links[edit]

  • Media related to Sugars at Wikimedia Commons
Sugars

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