Selections From Codex Junius 11rejected Scriptures

FREE DOWNLOAD!This book is taken from the same manuscript as Cynewulf, the Junius 11 poems-Genesis, Exodus, Daniel, and Christ and Satan-comprise a series of redacted Old English works that have been traditionally presented as the work of Bede's Caedmon.Apart from its focus on the Junius 11 manuscript, this collection of essays is also important as a study of how to read, edit, and define any. The Junius Manuscript is one of the four most significant manuscripts of Old English verse, which contain the vast majority of vernacular English poetry from the early medieval period. Almost all of the texts in these manuscripts exist in no other known copy, meaning that without them our knowledge of the earliest period of English literature. This free downloadable e-book can be read on your computer or e-reader. Mobi files can be read on Kindles, Epub files can be read on other e-book readers, and Zip files can be downloaded and read on your computer. (3) The diligence of the Masoretes, who, by their marks, placed, as it were, a fence around the Law. (4) The number and completeness of copies, with the result that even if one codex could have been corrupted, all could not be. Whatever contradictions seem to be in Scripture are apparent but not real. REJECTED SCRIPTURES: OVER 200 APOCRYPHAL TEXTS! Introduction Contents APOCRYPHAL TEXT OF THE MONTH. Selections From Codex Junius 11 SELECTIONS FROM THE NOWELL CODEX.

  1. Selections From Codex Junius 11 Rejected Scriptures 2017
  2. Selections From Codex Junius 11rejected Scriptures Study
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From Scroll to Codex​—How the Bible Became a Book

OVER the centuries, people have preserved information in many ways. In times past, writers recorded their words on monuments, stone or wood tablets, leaves of parchment, and other materials. By the first century, in the Middle East, the accepted and established format for the written word was the scroll. Then came the codex, which in time replaced the scroll and became the universal means of storing written material. It also contributed greatly to the distribution of the Bible. What was the codex, and how did it come into use?

Selections from codex junius 11 rejected scriptures free

The codex was the prototype, or earliest form, of today’s book. It consisted of sheets that were folded, assembled, and tied together along the fold. The pages were written on both sides and protected by a cover. The early codex did not look much like the books of today, but as with most other inventions, it was developed and modified according to the needs and preferences of those who used it.

Wood, Wax, and Parchment

Initially, codices were often made of wax-coated wooden tablets. Written waxed polyptychs, or tablets hinged together on their long side, were found at Herculaneum, a town destroyed along with Pompeii by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 C.E. Eventually, rigid tablets were replaced by sheets of foldable material. In Latin, these codices, or books, were called membranae, or parchments, after the leather generally used for their pages.

Some codices that have survived were made of papyrus. The oldest known Christian codices, which were preserved in the dry climate of certain areas of Egypt, are papyri.*

Scroll or Codex?

It appears that Christians used mainly the roll, or scroll, at least until about the end of the first century C.E. The period from the end of the first to the third century C.E. witnessed a struggle between advocates of the codex and those of the scroll. Conservatives, accustomed to using the scroll, were reluctant to give up well-established conventions and traditions. Consider, however, what was involved in reading a scroll. A scroll was usually made up of a standard number of sheets of papyrus or parchment glued together to make a long strip, which was then rolled up. The text was inscribed in columns on the front face of the scroll. To read it, the user unrolled the scroll to find the passage that he wanted. After the reading, he rolled it up again. (Luke 4:16-20) More than one scroll was often needed for a single literary work, making it even more cumbersome to use. Although Christians from the second century on evidently preferred to copy the Scriptures into codex form, use of the scroll continued for centuries. Still, experts believe that the Christians’ use of the codex played a significant role in its widespread acceptance.

The advantages of the codex are obvious​—the capacity, the convenience, and the ease in carrying. Even though some in the early days noted these advantages, the majority were slow to give up the use of the scroll. Over the span of several centuries, however, various factors gradually led to the ascendancy of the codex.

Compared with the scroll, the codex was more economical. Both sides of a page could be written on, and several books could be bound in the same volume. According to some, the ease with which specific passages could be located in the codex was fundamental to its success among Christians and such professionals as lawyers. For Christians, compact texts​—or simply a handy list of Bible quotations—​were extremely useful for the evangelizing work. Furthermore, the codex had a cover, often made of wood, so it was more durable than the scroll.

Codices were also practical for personal reading. By the end of the third century, parchment pocket Gospels were in circulation among professed Christians. Since then, literally billions of copies of the complete Bible or parts of it have been produced in codex form.

Today, many tools have opened the way for quick and easy access to the divine wisdom contained in the Bible. It can be found on computers, audio recordings, and the printed page. Whatever your preferred format of the Bible, cultivate a love for God’s Word, making it your daily concern.​—Psalm 119:97, 167.


See the article “The Early Christian Codex,” in the August 15, 1962, issue of The Watchtower, pages 501-5.

Selections From Codex Junius 11 Rejected Scriptures 2017

[Pictures on page 15]

The codex greatly contributed to the distribution of the Bible

© HAB Wolfenbüttel <portrait/a-10770>

Franciscus Junius (1545-1602) is a significant figure in the development of Reformedtheology in the era of early Reformed orthodoxy. Junius studied under John Calvin in Geneva, pastoringchurches throughout Europe and serving on the theological faculties of two of the most important academiesof the time, Heidelberg and Leiden. Junius was an accomplished exegete, linguist, and theologian.A selection of his theological writings were collected and published in 1882 as the first volume inthe Bibliotheca Reformata series edited by Abraham Kuyper. Citing his wide influence, as “Junius taughteverywhere,” Kuyper found it fitting to introduce the series, intended to reintroduce the works of majorReformed theologians to the church and academy, with Junius.

A Brief Overview of Junius’ Life
By Todd M. Rester, Director of the Junius Institute
(Extracted from the translator’s introduction to F. Junius,“Selection from On the Observation of the Mosaic Polity”)

François du Jon (1545–1602), Latinized as Franciscus Junius, was a significantReformed Protestant voice in the era of late sixteenth-century confessionalization. He is perhapsbest known as a professor of theology at Leiden University from 1592–1602. Junius was born in Bourges,France, into a family of minor nobility with all of the attendant social and educational advantages ofone of such rank. At the age of twelve, Junius matriculated at the academy of Bourges and studied lawunder the Huguenot jurist, François Douaren (1509–1559) who is recognized as a major voice in articulatingthe mos gallicus school of applying the fruits of Italian humanism to the legal code of Justinian. Juniusalso studied under the renowned French humanist, Huguenot, and jurist Hugues Doneau (1527–1591).Doneau, or Latinized Hugo Donellus, was perhaps best known for his application of French humanismto a study of Justinian’s Corpus Iuris Civilis, specifically the Digesta. Junius would imbibe ofthese studies deeply, and the maturation of these studies is evidenced in the marginalia and citationsof the classical Greco-Roman legal tradition in his various works.

With the Franco-Ottoman alliance beginning in 1536 against the Holy Roman Empire andby extension various allied city-states in Italy, there were frequent French diplomatic envoys crossingfrom Toulon to Istanbul. In 1560, due to his facility in Greek and law, Junius secured a diplomaticposition as an aide to the French ambassador to the court of Suleiman I (1494–1567). Junius, however,did not journey to Constantinople because he literally missed the boat, or rather the entourage thatdeparted from Lyon heading to the Mediterranean coast for passage to Constantinople. For the next twoyears, he lived instead in Lyons studying and attending lectures on the Greek and Roman classics.

Shortly thereafter, Junius decided to enter the French Reformed Church, and just shyof his seventeenth birthday, in the midst of the Huguenot wars in France, Junius arrived in Geneva onMarch 17, 1562, to study under Calvin and Beza. Although of noble birth, his income was severed dueto the revolt in France as well as to the murder of his Protestant father, reducing him to theseverest poverty while he studied for three years. In April of 1565 and almost twenty years ofage, he accepted a call to pastor a Walloon church in Antwerp, Belgium.

It was during this period in Antwerp that Junius took part in shepherding theBelgic Confession through the ecclesiastical channels in the Reformed church for formal recognitionat the Synod of Antwerp. Although prepared in 1561 primarily by Guido de Bres with the assistanceof H. Modestus and G. Wingen, Junius was tasked with a slight modification and abridgment ofArticle 16 of the Belgic Confession. Junius also played an active role in distributing copiesof the Belgic Confession to Geneva and other Reformed churches for feedback and for reaching abroader consensus. In 1566, the Synod of Antwerp was the first synodical body to adopt theBelgic Confession, followed by the Synod of Wesel (1568), and the Synod of Emden (1571).

In early 1566, King Philip II of Spain allowed the inquisition to come to theNetherlands. Throughout the Netherlands, there was a general uproar that resulted in iconoclasticexcess, of which Junius did not take part or encourage. There is a famous period picture of unknownauthorship of Junius preaching at night to his Antwerp congregation in a room lit through the windowsby the fires of Walloon Protestant martyrs in the public square. Junius also made his political voiceknown in a published appeal to the King of Spain on behalf of the Walloon churches that was printedin French (1565) as well as in German (1566). One of the accords William of Orange reached withPhilip II of Spain on September 2, 1566, only protected ministers and preachers who were nativesof the Low Countries. As a result, Junius fled to Limburg. Still exposed to threats from Roman Catholicsand Anabaptists, he fled again to Heidelberg. The year 1568 places Junius in Heidelberg. Following abrief tenure as pastor of a Reformed Church at Schonau, and an even briefer stint as a chaplain in afailed military campaign to the Netherlands, Junius returned to his pastorate at Schonau until 1573.

The period from 1573 to 1578 was marked by an extraordinary contribution toReformed biblical studies in the period of Reformed Protestant orthodoxy. In one edition or another,the Tremellius-Junius translation of the Bible shaped Protestant—and especially Reformed—theology anddogmatics well into the late eighteenth century. During this period, Junius was partner to adistinctively Reformed Protestant translation of the Scriptures from the original languages into Latin.He embarked on this work with famed Hebraist, Giovanni Emmanuele Tremellio (1510–1580), or Tremellius.Tremellius was an Italian-Jewish scholar and graduate from the humanist bastion of the University ofPadua, a convert to Roman Catholicism (1540) and then to Protestantism (1541). Tremellius was alsoimprisoned briefly for a period in the 1550s as a Calvinist. As a Hebrew professor, Tremellius’career took him to academies and universities at Strasbourg (1541–1549), Cambridge (1549–1553),Heidelberg (1561–1577), and then Sedan (1577–1580). Both of these scholars were skilled in Hebrew,Aramaic, and its cognates of Syriac and Chaldee, as well as Arabic, Greek, and Latin. The firstedition of the Tremellius-Junius Bible appeared in 1579 and enjoyed three further recensions byJunius (1581, 1593, 1602), with the most popular recensions being the second (1581) and the fourth(1602). The Tremellius-Junius Bible was published in Frankfurt, Amsterdam, London, Geneva, Hanover,and Zürich with over thirty-three different printings between 1579 to 1764. The Tremellius-Juniustranslation of the Old Testament was frequently paired as well with Theodore Beza’s Latin translationof the New Testament.

In 1576 upon the death of Frederick III, Elector of the Palatinate and staunch adherentof Reformed Protestantism, he was succeeded by his Lutheran son, Louis VI. Under the tenet of cuius regio,eius religio (whoever’s region, that one’s religion), Heidelberg became Lutheran again. The Reformedfaculty and students who refused to sign the Formula of Concord (1577) were driven out of the Universityof Heidelberg in 1577. Over the discord from the Formula of Concord, in approximately 1578–1579 JohannCasimir von Pfalz-Simmern (1543–1592), Frederick III’s brother and also an ally of the Reformed, foundedthe Casmirianum Collegium (1579–1583) at Neustadt. Junius was among the faculty at the newly formed andshort-lived college with one of the primary authors of the Heidelberg Catechism, Zacharias Ursinus (1534–1583),who had become a friend beginning in his days in Heidelberg. Junius would later deliver the funeral orationupon Ursinus’ death in Neustadt. It was very likely during this period at Neustadt in his lectures on thePsalms that Junius would first articulate his hermeneutical method for interpreting the psalms as well ashis distinctive understanding of foedus, pactum, and testamentum articulated in his commentaries on Genesisas well as his theological theses. In 1583 upon Louis VI’s death, Casimir became regent for his youngnephew and future elector, Frederick IV, and thus Heidelberg crossed from Lutheran hands into Reformed handsonce again. At this time, after Ursinus’ death, Junius was invited back as professor of theology toHeidelberg, a post he would hold until the late 1580s. While here, Junius’ engaged in the writing ofbiblical commentaries, political tracts and letters, and theological theses for his students’ practicedisputations. One of his most significant contributions from this period is his work Sacrorum Parallelorum(3d ed., 1588), which was a comparison, correlation, and commentary on all the Old Testament passagesin the New Testament.

At some point in the late 1580s through early 1592, Junius was involved in diplomaticconversations and missions for the duke of Bouillon in France and Germany at the close of the Huguenotwars and in personal conversation with Henry IV of Navarre, king of France. It was during this time thatthe curators of the University of Leiden persistently beseeched Junius to consider a professorship intheology at the University of Leiden. In early 1592, Junius accepted the position of professor primarius.

While at Leiden, Junius authored the work before us now as well as a significant workon theological prolegomena, De Vera Theologia. The content of De Vera Theologia became a cornerstone ofReformed, scholastic theology, surviving well into late nineteenth-century Reformed theologians such asHerman Bavinck. Themes and hints of the De Vera Theologia even found their way into such seventeenth-centuryLutheran scholastics as Andreas Quenstedt and Johannes Gerhard’s Loci Communes. In this work, Junius notonly outlines the archetypal/ectypal relationship as the basis for understanding the Creator/creaturedistinction but also for understanding theology and the necessity of Scripture for human beings fallenin sin, but striving as pilgrims or wayfarers for the blessed visio Dei. This work first appears in printin Leiden in 1594, two years after he employs the archetypal/ectypal understanding of the Creator/creaturedistinction in explaining natural law and its relationship to the Mosaic polity.

In 1602 upon his death, it was Junius’ chair of theology (and house on the Rapenburgin Leiden together with most of the furniture) that Jacobus Arminius filled after Junius’ death in theplague that struck Leiden. No less than the world-renowned historian and humanist Joseph Justus Scaliger(1540–1609) composed these words upon Junius’ death for the bereaved Leiden university community:

Selections From Codex Junius 11rejected Scriptures Study

You, O mourning school, weep for your teacher!
You, O bereft Church, your parent!
Your doctor, O whole wide world, lament!

Selections From Codex Junius 11 Rejected Scriptures List

Further Information on Franciscus Junius