Inscriptions.com

Inscriptions are random modifiers of weapon stats and effects. There are 4 types of inscriptions: Normal, Rare, Legendary, and Gemini. Gemini and weapon-exclusive Legendary Inscriptions do not appear until the respective talents are acquired. 1 Normal Inscriptions 2 Rare Inscriptions 3. Inscriptions by Region. Attica (IG I-III) Peloponnesos (IG IV-VI) Central Greece (IG VII-IX) Northern Greece (IG X) Thrace and the Lower Danube (IG X). His Inscriptions is devoted to Restoring Life-Giving Communication with God. Everything you'll find here is designed to bring the Word to life! Take a quiet moment, pour yourself a cup of tea and find a comfortable spot. Read an inspiring article or watch a video on YouTube.

inscription,

writingwriting,
the visible recording of language peculiar to the human species. Writing enables the transmission of ideas over vast distances of time and space and is a prerequisite of complex civilization.
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Inscriptions

Inscriptions.com on durable material. The art is called epigraphy. Modern inscriptions are made for permanent, monumental record, as on gravestones, cornerstones, and building fronts; they are often decorative and imitative of ancient (usually Roman) methods. The only current use of inscriptions that has no accepted substitute, the marking of graves, is also the oldest continuous use. The first writing was probably universally executed on hard materials, mainly stones (rough or hewn), clay (often marked when wet), metal, bone, and ivory. When light materials like paper were developed, it was possible to distinguish between writing for temporary use and permanent recording, and epigraphy became restricted.

For the history and examples of epigraphy, see histories of appropriate cultures, countries, languages, literatures, and periods of art. See also calligraphycalligraphy
[Gr.,=beautiful writing], skilled penmanship practiced as a fine art. See also inscription; paleography. European Calligraphy
In Europe two sorts of handwriting came into being very early.
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.

Non-Western Epigraphy

Outside Western history, epigraphy was of importance in two independent civilizations—in the remarkable art of the MayaMaya
, indigenous people of S Mexico and Central America, occupying an area comprising the Yucatán peninsula and much of the present state of Chiapas in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, parts of El Salvador, and extreme western Honduras.
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, ToltecToltec
, ancient civilization of Mexico. The name in Nahuatl means 'master builders.' The Toltec formed a warrior aristocracy that gained ascendancy in the Valley of Mexico c.A.D. 900 after the fall of Teotihuacán.
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, and AztecAztec
, Indian people dominating central Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest. Their language belonged to the Nahuatlan subfamily of Uto-Aztecan languages. They arrived in the Valley of Mexico from the north toward the end of the 12th cent.
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cultures (see pre-Columbian art and architecturepre-Columbian art and architecture,
works of art and structures created in Central and South America before the arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere. For many years the regions that are now Mexico and Guatemala and the Andean region of South America had been the cradle
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), and in China. Also notable is the exotic mid-Pacific epigraphy of Easter IslandEaster Island,
Span. Isla de Pascua, Polynesian Rapa Nui, remote island (1992 pop. 2,770), 66 sq mi (171 sq km), in the South Pacific, c.2,200 mi (3,540 km) W of Chile, to which it belongs.
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. The earliest Chinese inscriptions are on pottery (c.2500 B.C.) and bronze (c.1500 B.C.), and there are later writings on bone and tortoise shells. Dating from the classical period, before 200 B.C., are odes on great stone drums found in Shaanxi. The invention of paper (c.A.D. 100) ended the role of epigraphy in China. The bilingual inscriptions near OrkhonOrkhon
, river, c.300 mi (480 km) long, rising in the Khangai Mts., N central Republic of Mongolia, and flowing east, then north, past the site of ancient Karakorum, and then northeast to join the Selenga River just S of the Russian border.
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contain minor Chinese texts as well as the oldest known Turkic material.

The Hindus used palm leaves for writing early in their history, and their inscriptions do not record the older forms of their language. The most important are Prakrit inscriptions of AśokaAśoka
or Ashoka,
d. c.232 B.C., Indian emperor (c.273–c.232 B.C.) of the Maurya dynasty; grandson of Chandragupta. One of the greatest rulers of ancient India, he brought nearly all India, together with Baluchistan and Afghanistan, under one sway for the
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(3d cent. B.C.). The first Sanskrit inscriptions date from some centuries later.

Epigraphy in the Ancient World

The course of Western epigraphy begins in Mesopotamia and on the Nile. The Mesopotamian writing, cuneiformcuneiform
[Lat.,=wedge-shaped], system of writing developed before the last centuries of the 4th millennium B.C. in the lower Tigris and Euphrates valley, probably by the Sumerians (see Sumer).
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, was invented c.4000 B.C., probably by the Sumerians. It was created for writing on sun-dried brick. This combines durability with lightness and contrasts favorably with all other epigraphic materials in convenience of making and handling. It thus anticipates some of the merits of paper (see BabyloniaBabylonia
, ancient empire of Mesopotamia. The name is sometimes given to the whole civilization of S Mesopotamia, including the states established by the city rulers of Lagash, Akkad (or Agade), Uruk, and Ur in the 3d millennium B.C.
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; AssyriaAssyria
, ancient empire of W Asia. It developed around the city of Ashur, or Assur, on the upper Tigris River and south of the later capital, Nineveh. Assyria's Rise
The nucleus of a Semitic state was forming by the beginning of the 3d millennium B.C.
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; HittitesHittites
, ancient people of Asia Minor and Syria, who flourished from 1600 to 1200 B.C. The Hittites, a people of Indo-European connection, were supposed to have entered Cappadocia c.1800 B.C.
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; ElamElam
, ancient country of Asia, N of the Persian Gulf and E of the Tigris, now in W Iran. A civilization seems to have been established there very early, probably in the late 4th millennium B.C. The capital was Susa, and the country is sometimes called Susiana.
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; for notes on examples of epigraphic treasure-troves, see UrukUruk
or Erech
, ancient Sumerian city of Mesopotamia, on the Euphrates and NW of Ur (in present-day S Iraq). It is the modern Tall al Warka. Uruk, dating from the 5th millennium B.C., was the largest city in S Mesopotamia and an important religious center.
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; LagashLagash
or Shirpurla
, ancient city of Sumer, S Mesopotamia, now located at Telloh, SE Iraq. Lagash was flourishing by c.2400 B.C., but traces of habitation go back at least to the 4th millennium B.C. After the fall of Akkad (2180 B.C.
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; NinevehNineveh
, ancient city, capital of the Assyrian Empire, on the Tigris River opposite the site of modern Mosul, Iraq. A shaft dug at Nineveh has yielded a pottery sequence that can be equated with the earliest cultural development in N Mesopotamia.
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; NippurNippur
, ancient city of Babylonia, a N Sumerian settlement on the Euphrates. It was the seat of the important cult of the god Enlil, or Bel. Excavations at Nippur have yielded the remains of several temples that date from the middle of the 3d millennium B.C.
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; SusaSusa
, ancient city, capital of Elam. The site is 15 mi (23 km) SW of modern Dizful, Iran. It is the biblical Shushan, and its inhabitants were called Susanchites. From the 4th millennium B.C., Elam was under the cultural influence of Mesopotamia.
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; Tell el AmarnaTell el Amarna
or Tel el Amarna
, ancient locality, Egypt, near the Nile and c.60 mi (100 km) N of Asyut. Ikhnaton's capital, Akhetaton, was in Tell el Amarna. About 400 tablets with inscriptions in Akkadian cuneiform were found there in 1887.
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; BoğazköyBoğazköy
or Boghazkeui
, village, N central Turkey. Boğazköy (or Hattusas as it was called) was the chief center of the Hittite empire (1400–1200 B.C.), which was consolidated by Shubbiluliuma (fl. 1380 B.C.).
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).

An Eastern congener of Mesopotamian epigraphy is found in the seal inscriptions on faience and ivory (c.3000 B.C.) at the archaeological sites of the Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization,
ancient civilization that arose about 3300 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan, and was at its height from about 2600 B.C. to about 1900 B.C.
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. Long after, in Persia, the Achaemenids revived cuneiform writing in an altered form; their chief monument is the Behistun InscriptionsBehistun Inscription
or Bisutun Inscription
, cuneiform text, the decipherment of which was the key to all cuneiform script and opened to scholars the study of the written works of ancient Mesopotamia.
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(c.500 B.C.) of Darius I.

In EgyptEgypt
, Arab. Misr, biblical Mizraim, officially Arab Republic of Egypt, republic (2015 est. pop. 93,778,000), 386,659 sq mi (1,001,449 sq km), NE Africa and SW Asia.
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the hieroglyphichieroglyphic
[Gr.,=priestly carving], type of writing used in ancient Egypt. Similar pictographic styles of Crete, Asia Minor, and Central America and Mexico are also called hieroglyphics (see Minoan civilization; Anatolian languages; Maya; Aztec).
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epigraphy had a parallel development. From the I dynasty (4th millennium B.C.), inscriptions of the Nile present a grand panorama of history, past the age of the pyramidpyramid.
The true pyramid exists only in Egypt, though the term has also been applied to similar structures in other countries. Egyptian pyramids are square in plan and their triangular sides, which directly face the points of the compass, slope upwards at approximately a
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to the XII dynasty, heyday of hieroglyphic writing, then to the New Empire, with the splendid rock inscriptions at ThebesThebes
, city of ancient Egypt. Luxor and Karnak now occupy parts of its site. The city developed at a very early date from a number of small villages, particularly one around modern Luxor (then called Epet), but remained relatively obscure until the rise of the Theban family
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. Egyptian epigraphy lost its vitality more from the development of papyrus than from the downfall of the kingdom. Its influences are found everywhere in the Arabian peninsula in inscriptions of the 1st millennium B.C.; examples are the Moabite stoneMoabite stone
, ancient slab of stone erected in 850 B.C. by King Mesha of Moab; it contains a long inscription commemorating a victory in his revolt against Israel. It was discovered at Dibon, Jordan (1868), by F. A. Klein, a German clergyman.
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, Phoenician stones and coins, inscriptions near Damascus, and the Himyaritic writing of Yemen (see ShebaSheba,
biblical name of a region, called in Arabic Saba, of S Arabia, including present-day Yemen and the Hadhramaut. Its inhabitants were called Sabaeans or Sabeans. According to some passages in Genesis and First Chronicles, Sheba, a grandson of Noah's grandson Joktan, was the
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).

In the Mediterranean, the earliest epigraphy of Greek culture appears in Aegean civilizationAegean civilization
, term for the Bronze Age cultures of pre-Hellenic Greece. The complexity of those early civilizations was not suspected before the excavations of archaeologists in the late 19th cent.
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and Minoan civilizationMinoan civilization
, ancient Cretan culture representing a stage in the development of the Aegean civilization. It was named for the legendary King Minos of Crete by Sir Arthur Evans, the English archaeologist who conducted excavations there in the early 20th cent.
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. In Cyprus there are inscriptions of many ages, cuneiform and Greek writing side by side. From the expansion of Greece through the course of Roman history, epigraphy flourished everywhere, and inscriptions are literally innumerable. Among the older Greek inscriptions are those on vases, coins, votive offerings, statues, and the like. In addition, there are accounts of expenditures in temples, annals (e.g., the Parian Chronicle on PárosPáros
, island (1991 pop. 9,591), c.81 sq mi (210 sq km), SE Greece, in the Aegean Sea; one of the Cyclades. The main town is Páros. The land slopes to the coast from Mt. Hagios Ilias (c.2,500 ft/760 m high).
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), codes of laws (at GortynaGortyna
, ancient city, S central Crete. Under Rome it was one of the leading cities of the island. Many ancient Greek remains have been discovered on the site. An inscription dating from c.450 B.C.
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), decrees, bookkeeping accounts, lists of citizens, ostraca (see ostracismostracism
, ancient Athenian method of banishing a public figure. It was introduced after the fall of the family of Pisistratus. Each year the assembly took a preliminary vote to decide whether a vote of ostracism should be held.
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), and many graffiti (wall scribblings; see graffitograffito
. 1 Method of ornamenting architectural plaster surfaces. The designs are produced by scratching a topcoat of plaster to reveal an undercoat of contrasting and deeper color.
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).

Greek influence was, of course, decisive in Italy, first in the inscriptions of the Etruscan civilizationEtruscan civilization,
highest civilization in Italy before the rise of Rome. The core of the territory of the Etruscans, known as Etruria to the Latins, was northwest of the Tiber River, now in modern Tuscany and part of Umbria.
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. There are also many inscriptions in Italic languages, notably the Iguvine TablesIguvine Tables
, several inscribed bronze tablets dating from the 1st and 2d cent. A.D., discovered in 1444 at Gubbio, Italy (the ancient Iguvium and later Eugubium). Most of them are still preserved there.
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. Latin epigraphy began with religious documents, but by the end of the republic it was touching every phase of life. Contemporary with the late republic there was a Celtic epigraphy in Gaul, at first in Greek letters. However, the chief Celtic inscriptions are in the oghamogham,
ogam,
or ogum
, ancient Celtic alphabet of one of the Irish runic languages. It was used by the druids and abandoned after the first few centuries of the Christian era.
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writings of the Christian era. The Germanic runesrunes,
ancient characters used in Teutonic, Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian inscriptions. They were probably first used by the East Goths (c.300), who are thought to have derived them from Helleno-Italic writing.
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are another European alphabet used in inscriptions.

Later Epigraphy

Latin epigraphy extended in time far beyond the Roman Empire. The stoneworkers of Christianity adapted the old forms, first in the catacombs, then in churches. Modern monumental inscription is in the same tradition, but materially renovated by the neoclassicism of the Italian Renaissance.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

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-->South Chamber: The Gettysburg Address
Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863 during the dedication ceremony for the Soldiers' National Cemetery. This address was selected for its familiarity to many, but also because it displayed the president's strength and determination to see a successful conclusion to the American Civil War. That successful conclusion meant not just reuniting the nation, but finishing what our founders had started. This nation must be one in which all were “…created equal' was the rule of law and of practice.
  • Ranger Reflections: The Gettysburg Address


    Listen to a brief reflection on the famous speech by Park Ranger Michael Kelly.

    This is Michael Kelly, a Park Ranger at National Mall and Memorial Parks interpreting the Gettysburg Address.On July 4, 1863 President Abraham Lincoln celebrated the nation’s birthday with double Union victories, one at Vicksburg, Mississippi and the other at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The nation’s hopes for a speedy end to the war had to be tempered and the president knew it and he wanted the country to know it. The question remained, however, how could he do it.Gettysburg had been the costliest civil war battle to date with more than 53,000 casualties including 10,000 Union and Confederate soldiers killed and mortally wounded. Within weeks of the battle, torrential rainstorms and foraging animals had opened the thousands of poorly dug, shallow and temporary battlefield graves.Mortified, several Union states representatives banded together to create a soldier’s cemetery into which the Union dead could be reinterred with proper ceremony and respect.Considering that the war still raged, little thought was given to the Confederate dead in their temporary graves. That issue would have to await the end of the war. Following site selection of the Union soldier’s new cemetery, state commissioners determined that a fitting ceremony must inaugurate the reburial process.Northern state governors as well as prominent civilian and military leaders would attend the ceremony whose capstone would be an address delivered by the Honorable Edward Everett, a prominent American statesman, politician, educator, and orator. A near last-minute invitation also was extended to President Lincoln who, as Commander and Chief, may wish to offer what were described as a few appropriate remarks. President Lincoln accepted his invitation as his opportunity to pay tribute to the fallen while reminding Americans that war was far from being over.Lincoln thought hard about what he would say and how he would say it in as few words as possible, especially when he learned that Everett’s address alone would dominant more than two hours of the ceremony.Inside the White House Lincoln crafted the simple, powerful words into a speech that arguably became the most famous speech in history.
  • The Gettysburg Address


    The address delivered by President Abraham Lincoln at the dedication of the Soldiers National Cemetery, Gettysburg, Pa. on November 19, 1863. This recording was narrated by Lincoln actor Jim Getty.

    Four score and seven years ago our fathers bought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work, which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us. That from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion. That we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain. That this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom. And that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the Earth.The address delievered by President Abraham Lincoln at the dedication of the Soldiers National Cemetary, Gettysburg, Pennsylavania on November 19, 1863. The address was narrated by Jim Getty.

North Chamber: Second Inaugural Address
Lincoln's March 4, 1865 Second Inaugural Address was s
elected for the north chamber of the memorial. This speech, delivered just one month before the conclusion of the Civil War, creates the policy for reuniting the divided states. The reelected president firmly believed that the northern states should welcome their southern sisters and brothers back into the Union with open arms. But the feeling among many northerners at the end of the Civil War was anger toward the South for having left the Union. Lincoln's willingness to show compassion to the southern people, '…with malice towards none; charity for all,' helped quell the hostility among northerners.
  • Ranger Reflections: The Second Inaugural Address


    Listen to a brief reflection on Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address and be reminded of how Lincoln concludes the address by asking the people of the Union to put aside their bitterness and to be compassionate in order that the nation might heal and have lasting peace.

    Hi. I’m Catherine Williams, Park Ranger on National Mall and Memorial Parks.At the time President Lincoln gave his Second Inaugural Address, the Civil War was still in progress, but there was hope that the war would soon come to an end. Lincoln did not feel that it was necessary to talk about the war because he had spoken so often about it before and felt that there was nothing left to say.Instead he reminded the people as to why they were fighting this terrible war. However in reflecting on the past four years, Lincoln’s passions surfaced as he lays the primary blame of the Civil War on the southern states because of their practice of slavery and their desire to destroy the Union in order to keep it. Even so, he refers to a passage from the bible, “judge not, that we be not judged.”To remind the people of the Union that some of the blame most also fall on them. Lincoln felt that the war might possibly be God’s punishment on the nation; on the South for keeping slavery for too long while it was God’s will to end it and on the North for tolerating the institution and in some cases promoting it. Therefore, both were responsible for bringing such destruction to human life and property.He concludes the address by asking the people of the Union to put aside their bitterness and to be compassionate in order that the nation might heal and have lasting peace.It is important to note that within a few weeks, Lincoln set the example of compassion by encouraging Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, Commander of the Union forces, to offer generous terms of surrender to Confederate General Robert E. Lee from the Army of Northern Virginia in order to bring the war to an end and start the process of unification and peace for the nation as a whole.41 days after giving this speech, President Abraham Lincoln was killed by an embittered actor who blamed him for the South’s defeat.
  • The Second Inaugural


    On March 4, 1865, Abraham Lincoln took his second oath of office as president of the United States. The address he gave on the occasion is engraved on the north wall of the Lincoln Memorial. The version is recorded by Lincoln actor Jim Getty.

    Second InauguralOn March 4, 1865, Abraham Lincoln took his second oath of office as President of the United States of America. His speech can be found on the north wall of the Lincoln Memorial. The speech is narrated by Jim Getty.Fellow countrymen, at this second appearing to take the oath of office, there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper. Now at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest, which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energy of the nation, little that is new could be presented.The progress of our arms upon which all else chiefly depends is as well known to the public as to myself and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction with regard to it is ventured.On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago, all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it. All sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war, seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive; and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came.One eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was, somehow, the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union, even by war, while the government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it.Neither party expected for the war, the magnitude, or the duration, which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with, or even before, the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph and a result less fundamental and astounding.Both read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. Woe unto the world because of offenses for it must needs be that offenses come; but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh.If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both north and south, this terrible war, as the woe due to those by whom the offense came. Shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a Living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue, until all the wealth piled by the bond-man’s 250 years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said 3,000 years ago, so still it must be said “the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether.”With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.

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