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  • If at least one of my sons survives me, all. Estate after executing. Section A of Article V and Section B Item 1, 2 and 3 of Article V, is to be distributed among my children, with sons inheriting double the share of daughters. If none of my sons survive me and one daughter survives me, she inherits one half (1/2) of the estate.
  • This site on Islam is a brief illustrated guide for non-Muslims who'd like to understand Islam, Muslims (Moslems), and the Quran (Koran). This Islamic guide is simple to read and informative.

Islam, major world religion that emphasizes monotheism, the unity of God (‘Allah’ in Arabic), and Muhammad as his final messenger in a series of revelations. As the literal word of God, the Qur’an makes known the will of God, to which humans must surrender (lending the name Islam. God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.In mainstream trinitarian Christianity, God the Father is regarded as the first person of the Trinity, followed by the second person, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and the third person, God the Holy Spirit. Since the second century, Christian creeds included affirmation of belief in 'God the. This web site is a brief guide to understanding Islam. It consists of three chapters. The first chapter, Some Evidence for the Truth of Islam, answers some important questions which some people ask: n Is the Quran truly the literal word of God, revealed by Him? N Is Muhammad 1 truly a prophet sent by God? N Is Islam truly a religion from God? In this chapter, six kinds of.

The Qur'an and Qur'anic Interpretation (tafsir)

Table of Contents

The Qur'an: Introduction, including a glossary of terms used in the Qur'anic sciences.
179The History of the Compilation of the Qur'an
Critique of the Prevailing View of the Qur'an's Compilation and Rebuttal
Searchable Arabic Qur'an and Tafsirs, Searchable Translations, and Indices of the Qur'an in English and Arabic
Online Recitations of the Qur'an, including the science of Qur'anic recitation (tajwid)
Free Qur'ans in Print
Tafsir, commentary on the Qur'an
Downloadable Arabic Research Library

Qur'an: Introduction

Muslims believe that the Qur'an consists of the word of God revealed inArabic by God to the Prophet Muhammad over a twenty-two year period. Hereceived the firstrevelation in the year 610 CE while engaging in a contemplative retreat inthe Caveof Hira located on the Mountain of Light(Jabal al-nur)(also known as Mt. Hira), which is in theoutskirts of Mecca.

TheQur'an is distinct from hadith,which are the sayings of Muhammad. It is agreed that Muhammad clearlydistinguished between his own utterances (hadith) and God's words,the Qur'an.

Muslims and most Western scholars of Islam believe thatthe Arabic Qur'an that exists today contains substantially the same Arabic that wastransmitted by Muhammad. This often surprises scholars of the Bible, Judaism, and Christianity who in many cases assume that the Qur'an has substantially evolved over time (which is what scholars of the Bible --but not many believing Christians or Orthodox Jews-- generally agree on concerning the Bible).

In other words, while scholars of the Bible in the West have largely succeeded in convincing the community of scholars that the Bible we have today was not the very same 'Word of God' that was revealed through the prophets and which was spoken by Jesus, scholars of Islam have generally not come to similar conclusions about the Qur'an.

This is not to say that the text of the Qur'an is written just as it was written during the time of Muhammad. On the contrary, it is a historical fact, accepted by Muslims and non-Muslims alike, that the writing of the text (but not the text itself) of the Qur'an has substantially evolved. One such major evolutionary difference is that originally the text was written without diacritical points--which distinguish some letters from others-- but early in the history of the writing of Qur'an, diacritical points were added.

The upshot of this is the vast majority of Muslims rest assured that they are reading the exact words of revelation received by Muhammad (even though the manner of writing those words has indeed changed over time).

Since Muslims believe that words themselves are those revealed by God, the act of reciting or reading the Qur'an is believed to be a means of receiving blessings (baraka) from God. Hence it is not uncommon that Muslims will learn how to read Arabic and the Qur'an without understanding it. Also, even those who cannot read the Arabic letters of the Qur'an believe that they can nevertheless benefit from hearing the evocative quality and blessedness of the original Arabic.

An excellent introduction to the Qur'an is the article titled The Koran, (link fixed 26 February 2006) byProfessors Sachiko Murata and William C. Chittick of State University ofNew York, Stonybrook. This is an excerptfromtheir book Vision of Islam ( which is largely based on the Qur'an itself. This article will help readers to understand and getbeyond certain problems inherent in any translation of the Qur'an.

Glossaryof the Terms Used in the Qur'anic Sciences in both Arabic and English. This is anexcellent teaching tool for students.

The History of the Compilation of the Qur'an

Three hadith in the Sahih(certified collection) of Bukhari that address the issue of the compilation of the Qur'an are listed on the page titled Bukhari on the Collection of the Qur'an The traditional Muslim understanding of the history of the Qur'an isfound in the following article, excerpted from a speech by the 20th century Muslim revivalist, Syed Abul 'Aala Maudoodi, History of Qur'an Site (link fixed 26 February 2006) and ThePreservation and Transmission of Qur'an (link fixed 22 December 2005). The major events intraditional accounts of the process that lead up to the production of theQur'an as we know it are noted at the site Abrief History of the Compilation of the Qur'an.For a detailed recounting of the traditional Muslim view of the earlytransmission of the Qur'an see Transmission of the Qur'anicRevelation, which is chapter two in Ahmad von Denffer's book 'Ulumal-Qur'an.

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See also chapter three in the same work, The Qur'an in Manuscript andPrint, for a discussion of early Qur'an manuscripts.A recent online article that discusses early Qur'an manuscripts andincludes numerous images of these is titled The Qur'anManuscripts and was compiled by the Muslim scholars of Islamic-Awareness.Org, whichis a website designed to educate Muslims about the issues often raised byChristian missionaries.

Critique of the Prevailing View of the Compilation of the Qur'an and the Rebuttal

A minority of Western scholars (often called orientalists) assert thatMuslim accounts ofthe compilation of the Qur'an are pious fictions and that the Qur'ansubstantially evolved after the death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE.This viewpoint is presented in a recentarticle (on-line and in print) written for a popular audience inAtlantic Monthly,What is theKoran? (Link fixed January 14, 2008) Nevertheless, concerning thecompleteness of the Qur'an andthe final arrangement of the surahs (chapters), it must be stressed--as Professor A. Jones of Oxford asserts-- that'the varying views of orientalists [on the the completeness and orderof the Qur'an] are a mixture of prejudice and speculation' andconsequently have not been generally accepted as being true (CambridgeHistory of Arabic Literature: Arabic Literature to the End of the UmayyadPeriod p. 240). For a rebuttal of the AtlanticMonthlyarticle's maincontentions see a A Response tothe article 'What is the Koran?' written by a Jeffrey Lang, a Muslimprofessor of Mathematics at the University of Kansas. (Fixed 8 January, 2005) In addition, seethe critique writtenby Azizah al-Hibri, professor of Law at the University of Richmond.(Link fixed 22 December 2005.) And note as well, the comments on theAtlanticMonthly article derived from a statement by Professor SeyyedHossein Nasr, (link fixed 24 November 2001) a highly esteemed scholar of Islam andreligion ingeneral.

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A wide variety of criticisms of Muslim beliefs in theQur'anare explained and refuted in a generally scholarly manner at the manypages of the siteIssuesConcerning the Qur'an. See especially the subpages TextualIntegrity of the Qur'an and The Sourcesof the Qur'an.

Forgotten Witness: Evidence For The Early Codification Of The Qur'an by the scholar Estelle Whelan in the highly regarded Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1998, Volume 118, pp. 1-14. In this article, evidence is highlighted that refutes some of John Wansbrough's assertions that the Qur'an was codified centuries after the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad

What follows are three critical scholarly reviews of a recent attempt by Christoph Luxenberg (pseudonym) to argue that at the basis of the Qur'an is a Christian Syriac text. Subsequently I have added a link to the book itself and a variety of other reviews:

  • The Etymological Fallacy and Quranic Studies: Muhammad, Paradise, and Late Antiquity by Professor Walid Saleh, University of Toronto.
  • Angelika Neuwirth's Review of Luxenberg's Die syro-aramaische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlusselung der Koransprache' a brief review taken from Professor Neuwirth's article 'Qur'an and History - A Disputed Relationship. Some Reflections on Qur'anic History and History in the Qur'an', Journal of Qur'anic Studies, 2003, Volume V, Issue I, pp. 1-18.
  • Detailed Review of Luxenberg by Francois de Blois, Journal of Qur'anic Studies, 2003, Volume V, Issue 1, pp. 92-97.
  • All Islamic Content In One Place Download Section 179

  • Christoph Luxenberg is a website devote to reviews in various languages of Luxenberg's book. Among the reviews in English there and not listed above, see:
  • Missionary, dilettante or visionary? Areview of Ch. Luxenberg, Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Qur'an by Richard Kroes.
  • The Review by Piet Horsten in islamochristiana 28 (2002), pp. 310f.
  • Review by Robert R. Phenix Jr. und Cornelia B. Horn St. Paul, Minnesota, in Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, January 2003.
  • Review by Johannes J. G. Jansen Amsterdam, in Bibliotheca Orientalis, LX N°3-4, mei-augustus 2003, Spalten/columns 477-480.
  • Review by Martin F. J. Baasten Leiden, Niederlande / The Netherlands, in Aramaic Studies 2.2 (2004), pp. 268-272.
  • Review by Michael Marx summarized under the header 'What is the Koran?' the results of a conference on Christoph Luxenberg's book, which took place in the Berlin Institute for Advanced Studies 21 to 25 January 2004.
  • Review by Simon Hopkins Jerusalem, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 28 (2003). pp.377-380.

    Qur'an: Searchable Arabic Qur'an and Tafsirs, Searchable Translations, and Indices in English and Arabic

  • The Qur'anic Arabic Corpus is probably the best tool for English speakers interested in learning Qur'anic grammar, since it discusses the grammatical function of each Arabic word in the Qur'an.
  • al-Mu'jam al-mufahras an online index in Arabic of every word in the Qur'an, organized according to root (from the site ). It includes features such as the number of times a particular root configuration has been used in the Qur'an. In addition, if one clicks on a particular form of the root, all Qur'anic instances of it will appear in context. Up to this point, this online index is comparable to the famous al-Mu'jam al-mufahras of Fu'ad 'Abd al-Baqi. Nevertheless it supercedes it because if one clicks on the word in the verse that is its Qur'anic context, a window appears giving options such as the recitation of the verse, such as seeing what major Sunni Qur'an commentaries say about the verse in question, seeing translations of that verse in a variety of languages, and seeing any discussion of that verse in Qur'anic literature, such as in the genre of asbab al-nuzul (circumstances of revelation) or in the genre of gharib al-Qur'an (rare words in the Qur'an).
  • Search the Qur'an in Arabic at
  • Search Numerous Tafsirs in Arabic at One can also go directly to the English Translation of the well-known brief commentary Tafsir al-Jalalayn.

    Translations--however inspired they may be--are onlyshadows of the original. They should always be read with ahealthy dose of skepticism concerning the degree to which they reflect the original. The gulf between the original and thetranslation is an important reason why Muslims must recitethe Qur'an only in Arabic for the required daily prayers. Atranslation of the Qur'an is not the Qur'an; it is simply oneperson's interpretation of the Qur'an. To a limited extent, however,translations can shed light on the meaning of the Qur'an.

    By comparing a few Qur'an translations verse by verse, one can often geta fuller sense of the Arabic original. The following Translationsof the Qur'an site uses side by side translations of Pickthall, YusufAli, and Shakir. You can search these Qur'an translations as well.

    Qur'anTranslation Search Engine (No longer online.) Developed by Richard Goerwitz, then at BrownUniversity, this search engine searched the Pickthall, Yusufali, Shakir, and Sher Alitranslations of the Qur'an. This engine is more powerful than the previousengines, but in order to see all of the translations side by side, firstsearch for a word, phrase, or particular verse in one of the translations(eg. Pickthall, which is the default). Then click on one of results in the'passage list' and beneath the full passage, among the various optionsclick on 'all.' -->

    The M. H. Shakirtranslation can be searched by thispowerful search engine at the University of Michigan. It can perform threetypes of searches: a simple search for a word or phrase throughout theQur'an; a search for two or three words or phrases in close proximity toone another; a Boolean search for the occurence of two or threewords in any verse. One of the virtues of this engine is that the resultsare displayed in the context of the aya (s) in which the word orwords are found.

    The Message of the Qur'an by Muhammad Asad is an excellent translation and commentary on the Qur'an. His commentary is drawn largely from traditional and 19th century commentaries. (Updated January 7, 2012. Allow a few seconds for it to load. Originally it was located on the web at .) Another archived copy in one large html text file is at The Message of the Qur'an. See also a searchable pdf of The Message of the Qur'an.

    SubjectIndex of the Qur'an (fixed 22 December 2005) This subject index is hyperlinked with the Qur'an, sothat after choosing a particular subject, the reader can simply click onthe various Qur'anic verse (ayah)numbers, which will then lead tothe text of that verse in which the chosen subject is found.

    Introductions to Each Qur'anic Sura, by Mawdudi

    Online Qur'anic Recitations

    The Qur'an: Arabictext and recitation (Link fixed 22 December 2005) The recitation is by Shaykh Khalil al-Husari (one of the finest Qur'an reciters) andis considered to be ideal for learning the proper pronunciation of theQur'an. Real Audio is needed in order to hear this. If you do not have it, you can download it for free by clicking on this Real Audio link. (Changed to free audio links Sept. 24, 2003.)

    The Qur'an: Arabicrecitation by Shaykh al-Minshawi (one of the finest Qur'an reciters). (Changed to free audio link, Sept. 24, 2003.)

    Surat al-Fatiha, theopening surah of the Qur'an,is recited here by Shaykh Khalil al-Husari. (Real Audio)

    Rules for Reciting the Arabic Text of the Qur'an Qur'anic recitation (tajwid) is regarded as one the Qur'anic sciences. Some of these rules are indicated in the Arabic text of the Qur'an by means of Arabic abbreviations. The article here discusses such abbreviations as well as the other rules, providing clear examples to illustrate the rules.

    Free Qur'ans

    A Free Qur'an can be obtainedfrom the Islamic Affairs Division of the Saudi Arabian embassy. In the box that saysselect the requested items, click on and hold down the arrowhead on the right and choose Qur'an -- With English translation: Yousef Ali.

    Free Qur'an either send Free Qur' youraddress byemail or simply call toll free 1-800-747-8726 (1-800-74QURAN).

    A Free Qur'an isofferedas a service at this website.

    Obtain A Free Qu'ran (link fixed 17 August 2005)The Online Islamic Bookstore offers free Qur'ans to any interestednon-Muslim who is willing to pay the $3.00 shipping cost. (No longer offered, Oct.26, 2002.)


    Muslims regard the most reliable Qur'anic commentary as being contained in the Qur'anitself. In other words, the ways in which certain ayat clarify other ayat areregarded as being the mostsignificant form of commentary. A second form of Qur'anic commentary is how the Prophetinterpreted theQur'an. And his comments on the Qur'an (as well as everything he ever said or did) arerecorded in the hadith collections. After these two forms of commentary, knowledgeablecompanions and later generations of pious and learned Muslims expressed their view of themeaning ofvarious ayat. It was on this foundation that the science of Qur'anic commentary wasbuilt. All Islamic Content In One Placedownload Section
  • Foundations of the Science of Qur'an Interpretation (tafsir) (link fixed 22 December 2005) written by Shaykh Muhammad Zakariya Kandhalvi.
  • 'Ulumal-Qur'an: An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'an Written bythe Muslim scholar, Ahmad Von Denffer, this on-line version of thefirst six chapters of his book expresses a Sunni perspective on thevarious fields of scholarship relatedto the Qur'an.
  • 'Ulumal-Qur'an: An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'an is anotheronline version of Ahmad Von Denffer's work.
  • The Principles of Tafsir of the Qur'an is a well-formatted version of ch. 6 of Von Denffer's 'Ulum al-Qur'an. It contain's diacritical marks in transliterated Arabic terms, which are highlighted in bold.
  • Qur'anic Studies contains a variety of online scholarly articles dealing with Qur'anic grammar and rhetoric, literary style, and orthography.
  • Tafsirof Selected Surahs The Muslim woman scholar A'isha Bewley hastranslatedand compiled from traditional sources useful commentaries on Suratal-Tawbah, selected ayahs from Suratal-Nur, and Suratal-Mulk.
  • Inthe Shade of the Qur'an (Fi Zilal al-Qur'an) (link fixed 22 December 2005) is the well-known 20thCentury tafsir written by Syed Qutb, the Egyptian Muslim activistand major figure of the Muslim Brotherhood. This online section consistsof the commentary from Surah 78 until the end of the Qur'an.
  • Al-Mizan (link fixed 17 August 2005) is the voluminousQur'an commentary of the 'Alamah Taba'taba'i, the highly regarded 20th century Shi'itescholar. Here is the translation of his commentary on the Fatihah (the openingsurah of the Qur'an), part of the second surah (Baqarah), and partof the third surah, (Al 'Imran).
  • Islamic
  • The Message of the Qur'an by Muhammad Asad is an excellent translation and commentary on the Qur'an. His commentary is drawn largely from traditional and 19th century commentaries.
  • is the most comprehensiveQur'anic resource on the web. A project of the Aal al-Bayt Foundation forIslamic Thought, has put online the Qur'an inArabic recited by six of the most highly regarded Qur'anic reciters, numerous Qur'aniccommentaries in Arabic, as well as translations of the Qur'an into 16 languages andmany important texts in Arabic of the traditional Qur'anic sciences ('ulum). In theworks aretranslations into English of some of the commentaries along with a new translation ofthe Qur'an.

    Comprehensive Downloadable Arabic Library for Research in Primary Islamic Sources

    This invaluable free service includes all the major hadith texts(andmany of the minor ones) as well as works of hadith criticism, some important tafsirs, dictionaries,and worksof fiqh. These can be downloaded --not read online-- from the Al-Muhaddith Islamic Library and SearchProgram (link fixed 22 December 2005). They are essential for university libraries as well as for scholars who wish to pursue original research in Islamic primary sources.

    In addition to the hadith collections, one canalso download various Arabic tafsirs such as TafsirJalalayn,Suyuti's al-Durr al-manthur (which uses hadith to clarify and expand on the meaningof the Qur'an), and an abridged version of the Tafsiral-Qurtubi.

    The library includes as well a number of importantgeneral dictionaries such as Ibn Manzur's Lisanal-'Arab and Fayruzabadi's al-Qamus al-muhit; Ibn al-Athir's dictionary ofrare words used in hadith, al-Nihayah fi gharibal-hadith; Asfahani's dictionary of the Qur'an, Mufradat alfazal-Qur'an; and even an Arabic-English and English-Arabic dictionary.

    A PC running Arabic Windows95 is necessary in order to read the texts,although Arabic Windows98 is recommended.

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